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Vitamin D difficiency and Covid study

Vitamin D deficiency is a global health problem. Epidemiological risk factors for vitamin D deficiency include greater skin pigmentation, low sun exposure, use of skin-covering clothes, and a diet low in fish and dairy products.

Vitamin D is most often recognized for its role in bone health, but a low vitamin D status has been associated with a range of autoimmune, cardiovascular and infectious diseases.

A study of 1,176 adult patients admitted between April 7th, 2020, and February 4th, 2021 has revealed that Vitamin D difficiency is correlated to the severity of Covid. The study was undertaken at the Galilee Medical Centre in Nahariya, Israel. Patients had tested positive using a PCR covid test.

Vitamin D level records were available for 253 of the patients BEFORE they were admitted to hospital. This pre-recorded data helped to ensure it was reliable and not impacted by the onset of the disease itself.

Vitamin D trial participants

Vitamin D difficiency and Covid findings

Mortality of patients with adequate or high normal vitamin D was recorded at 2.3%. Of the  52.5% of patients, with Difficient Vitamin D levels, mortality was 25.6%, over 10 times higher.

When looking at patients who experienced severe or critical Covid disease, 87.4% had difficient Vitamin D levels. Of patients with minor or moderate disease, 34.3% had vitamin D difficiency.

How other factors contribute

The researchers then looked to see if there were different patterns when examined by age.

Patients were divided into three cohorts.

    • <50
    • 50 to 65
    • >65

Of these groups, 50 to 65 year showed the strongest correlation with Vitamin D levels and Covid serverity.  Researchers also looked at the impact of BMI, but could not find a significant correlation


Vitamin D difficiency shows great promise as an indicator for an increased Covid-19 infection AND severity of disease risk.  Vitamin D difficiency is a widespread problem regardless of Covid and many health authorities recommend Vitamin D supplements. This seems very sensible advice, especially at this time.

The study concludes by suggesting further research on the impact of patients taking Vitamin D supplements and ongoing Covid risk and severity.

Peer reviewed Paper reference

Pre-infection 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels and association with severity of COVID-19 illness

Amiel A. Dror et al

Published: February 3, 2022


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